According to the Meier (1930) definition, Aerobiology investigates the passive transport of biological particles through the atmosphere and its effect on living systems and environment. The aerobiological observations are useful to interpret processes proceeding in biology, meteorology and ecology but also these disciplines are of great help in understanding of aerobiological processes. Monitoring of airborne biological particles and their way from a source to a deposition place is a wide field and many scientists of different disciplines have an opportunity to display their talents.
Pollen monitoring, fungal spores monitoring, meteorology, climate change, forensics, modeling, forecasting, phenology, aeroagriculture, phytopathology, health impact, indoor allergens, toxicology, pollution.
General Pollen and Fungal Spore Monitoring
The results of the local, regional and national pollen and fungal spore monitoring are presented above all during the aerobiological symposia. Also the information about other monitoring methods are welcome. The results of the analyses in specific or extreme conditions/places are expected. Really interesting would be the estimation of the pollution influence on pollen and relationship between biological particles and environmental factors, especially meteorological ones.
Aerobiology, among others, deals with the occurrence of fungal spores in the air. Fungi are involved in many plant diseases spreading rapidly and causing huge losses especially in cultivated plants. They also have a devastating effect on building materials and technological processes in building trade. Clinical observations deliver evidences which confirm the fungi activity causing or intensifying allergy symptoms in sensitive people. In the present allergology the problem of “mycological air contamination" is strongly discussed, especially the activity of allergenic spores (Alternaria, Cladosporium) and mycotoxins (Asp/Pen, Fusarium, Stachybotris) which could be presented in a special session named TOXYCOLOGY.
There is a possibility to organize a Fungal Spore Workshop within the Symposium for people who are interested in meeting with experts at fungi to identify unknown spores and to discuss some problems.
Suggested problem: assessment of AIR QUALITY for medical purposes, indoor air quality, CULTURAL HERITAGE, comparative survey of indoor and outdoor environments, intradiurnal periodicity of pollen and fungal spore concentrations, occurrence of different biological particles, like pollen, fungal spores, bacteria, viruses, house dust mites in specific conditions and reservoirs (air-conditioning places, central-heating, hoses, gardens, factories). The special attention will be put on the biological threat connected with BIOTERRORISM.
The aerobiological data, especially related to the seasonal dynamics are the useful tool for global climatic change estimation, being a supplement of data obtained by climatologists. There is still a great need for more regional forecast models for allergenic pollen types and also for the integrated systems of the current influence of the climatic change on the plant behavior.
The medical sessions will be organized under patronage of the Polish Allergological Society. A one day medical sessions will be arranged in frame of the Symposium scientific programme. The authorities of Polish and European allergology invited as keynote speakers, will present the information about epidemiology of pollen allergy in Europe, the latest results of allergen monitoring and the information systems for sensitive patients. They will also encourage the participants to discuss about practical application of the aeromonitoring in allergological practice, in the diagnostics, treatment and in the prophylaxis of pollen allergy. The medical subject refers to both medical doctors and aerobiologists to share the knowledge with other participants and to discuss some interesting problems during the scientific sessions, round-table discussions and personal meetings.
Also the latest information about the allergen research and the examples of the aeropalynological measurement application in FORENSICS, CRIMINOLOGY will be presented with the special attention.
Estimation of the occurrence of phenological stages of many indicator species allows us to demonstrate the acceleration of their growth from several days to several weeks. Therefore, intensive phenological research, performed in many countries, is now of even greater importance. Phenological data enable to predict and interpret aerobiological data. The latest results associated with these scientific problems are welcomed.
Melissopalynology identifies pollen grains in bee products, which enables recognition of sources of nectar and honey-bees, and indicates plants pollinated by these insects. Melissopalynology is also applied in studies on the Apidae family and pollinating insects from other systematic groups, in planning of honey-yielding plant cultivation and in jurisdiction on honey forgery. During the Symposium it will be possible to visit the exhibition of Polish honey products and also to taste them.
All agricultural crops produce pollen grains. Their amount is of great importance especially in composed hybrid cultivars that contain mother plants and pollinators. The low number of pollen grains may be a serious problem leading to insufficient seed yield.
Hence the studies and detection of pollen grains in the air is of great interest to the breeders, seed companies and farmers. The additional application of molecular methods such as PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) and Real-Time PCR (quantitative PCR) allow to detect pollen grains of GM (Genetically Modified) crops and monitor their presence and concentration in air samples.
Numerous diseases of agricultural crops are caused by microorganisms dispersed by air currents. The most substantial role in this process is played by air-borne fungal spores of plant pathogens. Aerobiological methods help to detect and monitor the periods of the highest concentration of such pathogens allowing to pinpoint the periods crucial for the protection of crop plants against diseases. Spore trapping systems supplemented with molecular studies allow to detect minute amounts of DNA of pathogenic fungi. The use of specific primers allows to identify species (even if their spore shape and size are typical for a wider group of pathogens), and also detect pathotypes, mating types, chemotypes, genotypes carrying virulent genes and forms resistant to certain pesticides.
Different Methods of modern Pollen Sampling
During the last decades, long data series have been collected on the basis not only of the volumetric method but of Tauber traps, as well. The traps working in the frame of the Pollen Monitoring Programme (PMP), have been situated in various vegetation zones across Europe (www.pollentrapping.net). The PMP monitors annual pollen deposition across vegetation units from closed forests to open situations. A great effort has been put into the calibrating of the pollen-vegetation relationship to interpret pollen data in relation to the vegetation composition and structure, plant abundance and land cover. The comparison with the results of aerobiological monitoring evidenced the same trends in annual sums obtained by different methods which additionally supported the results. All contributions on the Tauber trap pollen records are welcome.